Elsewhere I suggested the idea of making the icon or tab coloring/highlighting in the properties panel context-sensitive, such as when you have an object of a particular type selected, then highlight the tab(s) which are most relevant to that object type. So for Camera, Light, etc., draw attention directly to the tab that contains the most specific items for that type. For Mesh objects maybe that’s two or three of the most used property tabs (Modifiers, Object Data, and Material say).
I thought perhaps highlighting the tab background or putting a hilight/selected color outline around the tab, as opposed to changing the icon color.
The upper most set of tabs in Properties are “weird” in that they generally don’t apply to the current selection (unless perhaps you consider the scene and view layer as selections). In other software you would have a Render “thing” that you would need to select somewhere in order to fill the Properties panel with the rendering properties. In Blender it’s just always there in the set of current tabs in the Properties panel. I could definitely see highlighting or visually grouping these “global” property tabs more strongly to indicate their difference. The current gap below the world icon is a bit subtle.
I would avoid color for the sake of color, and would argue against an “angry fruit salad” as designers like to call it. Color hilighting should be meaningful and a user should be able to figure out and tell you what the colors mean.